The DASS-21 is a measure that assesses three negative emotional states: Depression, Anxiety and Stress (Lovibond & Lovibond 1995a).
Number of items: 21 items (7 items for each emotional state).
Procedure/Administration: Self-report format consisting of statements referring to the past week. Each item is scored on a 4-point scale (0 = Did not apply to me at all, to 3 = Applied to me very much or most of the time).
How scored: Scores from each subscale are summed and multiplied by two. Subscale score range from 0 to 42.
Interpretability: Higher scores indicate greater levels of distress. Normative data are available from the DASS manual however these are based on the full DASS (42 items).
Acceptability: Comparison of the DASS-21 to clinical judgment showed that the measure has clinical utility (Mitchell et al. 2007). The scale appears understandable and easy to complete.
Languages: English, Portuguese, and Cantonese.
Time to administer: Less than 10 minutes.
Time to score: N/a
Training required: N/a
Availability: Serenity ProgrammeTM – www.serene.me.uk
Equipment required: None
Criterion (D and A): Green light
Criterion (S): N/a
SS (D)/ SS (A): Yellow light
Note: TR= Test re-test; IC= Internal Consistency; Inter-O= Inter-observer; Intra-O= Intra-observer; SS= Sensitivity/Specificity; N/A= No information.
Red light= A single study involving SCI subjects which has less than adequate findings of reliability, validity, and/or responsiveness.
Yellow light= A single study involving subjects with SCI which has adequate to excellent findings of reliability, validity, and/or responsiveness.
Green light= At least 2 studies involving subjects with SCI which have adequate to excellent findings of reliability, validity, and/or responsiveness.