Klein-Bell Activities of Daily Living Scale (K-B Scale)
The K-B Scale is a generic instrument that can be used with persons with or without disability. It was developed to measure ADL independence in both adults and children. Items are divided into six sub-dimensions: Mobility, Emergency Communication, Dressing, Elimination, Bathing/Hygiene, and Eating. The majority of items measure ADLs and others measure body function (bladder/bowel emptying and incontinence, chewing/swallowing food and liquids, verbalizing telephone messages).
Number of items: 170
Procedure/Administration: Each subtask on this performance oriented measure is scored as able to perform (score = 1), unable to perform (score = 0), or not applicable (score = 1).
How scored: Subtask weights of 1, 2, or 3 are assigned to each subtask. In developing the weights, four factors were considered, including: importance to health, difficulty for non-disabled persons, time required to perform the task, and the burden of care-giving. Overall independence scores range from 0 to 313 (0%-100%).
Interpretability: Higher scores indicate greater independence.
Acceptability: The scale was not designed specifically for
Time to administer: 1-3 hours
Time to score: 15 minutes
Training required: N/a
Equipment required: N/a
- The K-B Scale divides each activity into its essential components to get a measure of basic ADL. This is advantageous over other known ADL scales as it makes it possible to detect problematic items within activities and thus helps to better identify rehabilitation treatment.
- The authors suggest using the scale as a method to generate discussion about goals they wish to achieve.
IO: Green light
Construct: Green light
Ceiling: Red light
Note: TR= Test re-test; IC= Internal Consistency; Inter-O= Inter-observer; Intra-O= Intra-observer; SS= Sensitivity/Specificity; N/a= No information.
Red light= A single study involving SCI subjects which has less than adequate findings of reliability, validity, and/or responsiveness.
Yellow light= A single study involving subjects with SCI which has adequate to excellent findings of reliability, validity, and/or responsiveness.
Green light= At least 2 studies involving subjects with SCI which have adequate to excellent findings of reliability, validity, and/or responsiveness.
- Dahlgren A, Karlsson A-K, Lundgren Nilsson Ã…, FridÃ©n J, Claesson L. Activity performance and upper extremity function in cervical spinal cord injury patients according to the Klein-Bell ADL Scale. Spinal Cord 2007; 45: 475-484.
- Lynch KB, Bridle MJ. Validity of the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test in Predicting Activities of Daily Living. The Occupational Therapy Journal of Research 1989; Volume 9, Number 5: 316-18.