Sollerman Hand Function Test
This test was developed to provide an overall measure of hand and grip function when engaging in ADLs (Sollermen & Ejeskar 1985). It was designed to measure grips that are needed for certain ADLs such as eating, driving, personal hygiene, and writing. The test includes subtests that represent common handgrips (volar, transverse volar, spherical volar and pinch positions - pulp, lateral, tripod, and the five finger) and activities (using a key; picking up coins from a flat surface; writing with a pen; using a phone; and pouring water from a jug).
Number of items: 20
Procedure/Administration: Clinician administered standardized performance test. A test box is placed in front of the patients who are required to start each subtask in a seated position but they may stand to complete a task if necessary. Three subtasks are completed using the hands bilaterally while the rest are completed with each hand separately. The subtests are timed and the performance is observed.
How scored: Scoring takes into account the time taken, level of difficulty displayed, and the quality of performance using the correct pinch or grip position. Patients are then scored on a 5-point scale from 0 (task cannot be performed at all) to 4 (task is completed without any difficulty within the time frame (20 seconds) and with the prescribed hand-grip of normal quality). Scoring the test can be challenging as the assessor must be aware of multiple factors occurring simultaneously (passage of time, difficulty, correct positioning and quality of performance). Definitions for interpreting the scoring scheme are not inherently obvious.
Interpretability: A total sum score is created by adding up the scores from the different subtests. Scores range from 0 to 80 with higher scores reflecting a better performance. Subjects with no hand function impairment typically score 80 with the dominant hand and 77-79 for the non-dominant hand.
Acceptability: The test was designed with tetraplegic patients in mind and therefore reflects the needs of this group.
Time to administer: 20-25 minutes (one minute for each subsection plus introduction of the test)
Time to score: N/a
Training required: It can be used by clinicians who have little experience - though knowledge of hand function is an asset when scoring.
Equipment required: Special equipment is required.
- The Sollerman (unlike the Jebsen Hand Function Test) considers the quality and level of difficulty with the performance which are important components with respect to hand function.
Psychometric Summary :
Inter O: Green light
Criterion: Green light
Note: TR= Test re-test; IC= Internal Consistency; Inter-O=Inter-observer; Intra-O=Intra-observer; SS=Sensitivity/Specificity.
Red light= A single study involving SCI subjects which has less than adequate findings of reliability, validity, and/or responsiveness.
Yellow light= A single study involving subjects with SCI which has adequate to excellent findings of reliability, validity, and/or responsiveness.
Green light= At least 2 studies involving subjects with SCI which have adequate to excellent findings of reliability, validity, and/or responsiveness.
N/a= No information.
- Dellhag B & Burckhardt CS. Predictors of Hand Function in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. Arthritis Care and Research 1995;8:16-20.
- Sollerman C & Ejeskär A. Sollerman Hand Function Test. A Standardised Method and its Use in Tetraplegic Patients. Scand J Plast Reconstr Hand Surg 1995;29:167-176.