Wheelchair Users Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI)
The WUSPI measures the functional cost of shoulder pain in wheelchair users (Curtis et al. 1995). The scale targets activity limitation resulting from shoulder pain on a 10 cm visual analogue scale, covering 4 subsections which include transfers, wheelchair mobility, self-care, and general activities.
Number of items: 15
Procedure/Administration: Self report format. Respondents indicate how much pain they experience performing each activity on visual analog scale. The anchors for the items range from 0 “no interference due to pain” to 10 “completely interferes due to shoulder pain”.
How scored: The total score is derived by adding the individual item scores. Total scores range from 0 (no pain) to 150 (extreme pain).
Interpretability: Higher scores indicate more limitation due to pain. No information is available regarding norms or meaningful cut scores.
Acceptability: No psychometric evidence is available for responsiveness and the majority of research for reliability and validity has been conducted using a mixed sample (not just
Time to administer: 5 minutes
Time to score: 10 minutes
Training required: None
Availability: A free copy of the questionnaire is available from the author: Kathleen Curtis, PT, PhD (email: firstname.lastname@example.org)
Equipment required: ruler to measure each visual analog scale.
- The WUSPI is a simple and effective joint specific method of quickly determining the degree of interference due to pain when doing typical tasks of daily living.
- This tool is specific to shoulder pain. It does not obtain information about the type or frequency of pain experienced during the activities. No strategies are suggested to assist with scoring if a person indicates they do not do certain activities (e.g. load their chair into a car).
TR: Green light
IC: Green light
Concurrent: Yellow light
Note: TR= Test re-test; IC= Internal Consistency;Inter-O=Inter-observer; Intra-O=Intra-observer; SS=Sensitivity/Specificity.
Red light= A single study involving SCI subjects which has less than adequate findings of reliability, validity, and/or responsiveness.
Yellow light= A single study involving subjects with SCI which has adequate to excellent findings of reliability, validity, and/or responsiveness.
Green light= At least 2 studies involving subjects with SCI which have adequate to excellent findings of reliability, validity, and/or responsiveness.
N/a= No information.
- Curtis KA, Roach KE, Applegate EB, Amar T, Benbow CS, Genecco TD, Gualano J. Development of the Wheelchair User's Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI). Paraplegia 1995;33:290-293.
- Curtis KA, Roach KE, Applegate EB, Amar T, Benbow CS, Genecco TD, Gualano J. Reliability and validity of the Wheelchair User's Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI). Paraplegia 1995;33:595-601.
- Sawatzky BJ, Slobogean GP, Reilly CW, Chambers CT, Hol AT. Prevalence of shoulder pain in adult- versus childhood-onset wheelchair users: a pilot study. J Rehabil Res Dev 2005;42:1-8.